Beautiful science.

How it works and the data that proves it.

Feed your skin.

Healthy blood microcirculation provides the essential nutrients and hydration that create the glow associated with youthful skin and is an essential factor in fighting skin aging. Powerful Beauty inspires optimal blood flow by generating endothelial nitric oxide (NO) which is the key mediator facilitating arterial relaxation, maximizing nutrient delivery and skin hydration.

CAPILLARY MICROCIRCULATION

Fight wrinkles.

Powerful Beauty nutrients selectively bind with collagen and elastin, helping rebuild and protect elastic tissue proteins and stimulate genesis of new collagen for a smooth, face firming effect The Powerful formula also increases hyaluronic acid production, moistening skin from the inside out, building volume and structure, and helping create plumper, younger looking skin.

ELASTIC TISSUE DEGENERATION

The numbers.

The unique Powerful Beauty formula addresses multiple skin factors simultaneously for comprehensive skin enhancement and protection.

pigmentation intensity reduction

pigmentation intensity reduction

increased uv exposure resistance

increased uv exposure resistance

collagen and elastin synthesis

collagen and elastin synthesis

hyaluronic acid synthesis

hyaluronic acid synthesis

improved skin respiration

improved skin respiration

pigmentation intensity reduction

pigmentation intensity reduction

increased uv exposure resistance

increased uv exposure resistance

collagen and elastin synthesis

collagen and elastin synthesis

hyaluronic acid synthesis

hyaluronic acid synthesis

improved skin respiration

improved skin respiration

Research.

The benefits of Powerful Beauty go beyond incredible skin. Explore the data on how this formula addresses multiple health factors while enhancing and protecting a beautiful complexion.

Pycnogenol® shows pigmentation reduction in human skin.

Leis Ayres E, Costa A, Eberlin S, Platto Clerici S

Ex vivo study for evaluating the whitening activity of Pycnogenol® after exposure to ultraviolet and infrared radiations, and visible lights.

Surg Cosmet Dermatol 7: 303-307, 2015

 

CLINICAL STUDY: This article reviews earlier clinical Pycnogenol® research of the group, identifying improved skin elasticity and hydration, highlighting new findings on oral Pycnogenol® supporting fairer skin complexion, as well as improved skin barrier function.

Grether-Beck S, Marini A, Jaenicke T, Krutmann J

French Maritime Pine Bark Extract (Pycnogenol®) Effects on Human Skin: Clinical and Molecular Evidence.

Skin Pharmacol Physiol 29: 13-17, 2016

 

CLINICAL STUDY: The study describes significant reduction of skin pigmentation with Pycnogenol® supplementation, taken in addition to the use of sun-screens, in 31 women with melasma.

Scharf Pinto CA, Zuchi Delfes MF, Montanheiro dos Reis L, Garbers LE, Vieira da Rosa Passos PC, Skusa de Torre D The use of Pycnogenol® in the treatment of melasma.

Surg Cosmet Dermatol 7: 218-222, 2015

 

CLINICAL STUDY: Research demonstrates that Pycnogenol® in combination with pomegranate extract brightens skin and helps decrease blotches in European and and Asian women.

De Schuyteneer A, Hamon I, Rohdewald P

A formulation of extracts from pine bark and pomegranate improves complexion after oral intake.

Esperienze Dermatologiche 17: 7-11, 2015

 

CLINICAL STUDY: The oral administration of Pycnogenol® combined with daily sunscreen application should be added as an adjuvant to other treatments of melasma.

Campos V

Oral administration of Pycnogenol® associated with sunscreen improve clinical symtpoms of melasma.

J Am Acad Dermatol AB19 (P8471), 2014

 

CLINICAL STUDY: Most common clinical aspects of psoriasis could be improved by Pycnogenol® supplementation.

Belcaro G, Luzzi R, Hu S, Cesarone MR, Dugall M, Ippolito E, Corsi M, Caporale S

Improvement in signs and symptoms in psoriasis patients with Pycnogenol® supplementation.

Panminerva Med 56: 41-48, 2014

 

CLINICAL STUDY: Pycnogenol® increases women’s skin elasticity and hydration which coincides with significantly new collagen and hyaluronic acid synthesis in their skin.

Marini A, Grether-Beck S, Jaenicke T, Weber M, Burki C, Formann P, Brenden H, Schönlau F, Krutmann J

Pycnogenol® Effects on Skin Elasticity and Hydration Coincide with Increased Gene Expressions of Collagen Type I and Hyaluronic Acid Synthase in Women.

Skin Pharmacol Physiol 25: 86-92, 2012

 

Pycnogenol® inhibits pigment formation in skin cells four times more potently than kojic acid, a compound commonly used in skin-whitening products.

Kim YJ, Kang KS, Yokozawa T

The anti-melanogenic effect of Pycnogenol® by its anti-oxidative actions.

Food and Chemical Toxicol 46: 2466-2471, 2008

 

Beneficial effects of Pycnogenol® in wrinkles- A review article.

Rona C, Vailati F, Berardesca E

The cosmetic treatment of wrinkles.

J Cosmet Dermatol 3: 26-34, 2004

 

CLINICAL STUDY: Pycnogenol® accelerates healing of diabetic ulcers in humans.

Belcaro G, Cesarone MR, Errichi BM, Ledda A, Di Renzo A, Stuard S, Dugall M, Pellegrini L, Gizzi G, Rohdewald P, Ippolito E, Ricci A, Cacchio M, Cipollone G, Ruffini I, Fano F, Hosoi M

Diabetic Ulcers: Microcirculatory Improvement and Faster Healing with Pycnogenol®.

Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 12: 318-323, 2006

 

Oral administration of Pycnogenol® is able to delay and to reduce skin cancer following UV radiation.

Kyriazi M, Yova D, Rallis M, Lima A

Cancer chemopreventive effects of Pinus maritima bark extract on ultraviolet radiation and ultraviolet radiation-7,12 dimethylbenz(a) anthracene induced skin carcinogenesis of hairless mice.

Cancer Lett 237: 234-241, 2006

 

CLINICAL STUDY: Pycnogenol® inhibits release of enzymes involved in breaking-down collagen and elastin in inflamed skin in humans.

Grimm T, Chovanova Z, Muchova J, Sumegova K, Liptakova A, Durackova Z, Högger P

Inhibition of NF-kappaB activation and MMP-9 secretion by plasma of human volunteers after ingestion of maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol®).

J Inflamm 3: 1-6, 2006

 

CLINICAL STUDY: Ulcers of the lower legs heal faster with orally and topically applied Pycnogenol®.

Belcaro G, Cesarone MR, Errichi BM, Ledda A, Di Renzo A, Stuard S, Dugall M, Pellegrini L, Rohdewald P, Ippolito E, Ricci A, Cacchio M, Ruffini I, Fano F, Hosoi M

Venous Ulcers: Microcirculatory Improvement and Faster Healing with Local Use of Pycnogenol®.

Angiology 56: 699-705, 2005

 

Pycnogenol® shows antimicrobial activity at very low concentration.

Torras MAC, Faura CA, Schönlau F, Rohdewald P Anti-microbial activity of Pycnogenol®.

Phytother Res 19: 647-648, 2005

 

Evidence of percutaneous absorption of Pycnogenol® in human skin.

Sarikaki V, Rallis M, Tanojo H, Panteri I, Dotsikas Y, Loukas YL, Papaioannou G, Demetzos C, Weber S, Moini H, Maibach HI, Packer L

In vitro percutaneous absorption of pine bark extract (Pycnogenol®) in human skin.

J Toxicol Cutaneous Ocul Toxicol 23: 149-158, 2004

 

Topically applied Pycnogenol® dose-dependently speeds-up the wound healing process and reduces scar formation.

Blazso G, Gabor M, Schönlau F, Rohdewald P

Pycnogenol® accelerates wound healing and reduces scar formation.

Phytother Res 18: 579-581, 2004

 

CLINICAL STUDY: Supplementation with Pycnogenol® in combination with vitamins, minerals improves skin smoothness and elasticity in women.

Segger D, Schönlau F

Supplementation with Evelle® improves smoothness and elasticity in a double blind, placebo- controlled study with 62 women.

J Dermatolog Treat 15: 222-226, 2004

 

Pycnogenol® applied topically after sunburn inhibits photocarcinogenesis.

Sime S, Reeve VE

Protection from inflammation, immunosuppression and carcinogenesis induced by UV radiation in mice by topical Pycnogenol®.

Photochem Photobiol 79: 193-198, 2004

 

CLINICAL STUDY: The collagen and elastin destroying enzymes are potently inhibited by Pycnogenol® as well as its metabolites prevailing in humans after oral consumption.

Grimm T, Schäfer A, Högger P

Antioxidant activity and inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases by metabolites of maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol®).

J Free Radic Biol Med 36: 811-822, 2004

 

Review summarizing the beneficial effects of Pycnogenol® for skin care.

Schönlau F

The cosmeceutical Pycnogenol®.

J Appl Cosmetol 20: 241-246, 2002

 

CLINICAL STUDY: Pycnogenol® counteracts skin hyper-pigmentation in women.

Ni Z, Mu Y, Gulati O

Treatment of melasma with Pycnogenol®.

Phytother Res 16: 567-571, 2002

 

CLINICAL STUDY: Pycnogenol® dose-dependently inhibits UV-induced erythema in humans, demonstrating a potent anti-photoageing effect.

Saliou C, Rimbach G, Moini H, McLaughlin L, Hosseini S, Lee J, Watson RR, Packer L

Solar ultraviolet-induced erythema in human skin and nuclear factor-kappa-B-dependent gene expression in keratinocytes are modulated by French maritime pine bark extract.

J Free Radic Biol Med 30: 154-160, 2001

 

Pycnogenol® favourably affects the gene expression profile in human keratinocytes, indicating a promising potential for improving inflammatory skin disorders such as psoriasis and dermatoses.

Rihn B, Saliou C, Bottin MC, Keith G, Packer L

From ancient remedies to modern therapeutics: Pine bark uses in skin disorders revisited.

Phytother Res 15: 76-78, 2001

 

Pycnogenol® inhibits the production of adhesion molecules in human skin cells during inflammation which would contribute to relieving inflammatory skin disorders.

Bito T, Roy S, Sen CK, Packer L

Pine bark extract Pycnogenol® down regulates IFN-γ - induced adhesion of T cells to human keratinocytes by inhibiting inducible ICAM-1 expression.

J Free Radic Biol Med 28: 219-227, 2000

 

Pycnogenol® prolongs the lifetime of vitamin C which will contribute to higher vitamin C presence in the skin.

Cossins E, Lee R, Packer L

ESR studies of vitamin C regeneration, order of reactivity of natural source phytochemical preparations.

Biochem Mol Biol Int 45: 583-597, 1998

 

Pycnogenol® protects α-tocopherol from oxidation and extends its life-time in endothelial cells.

Virgili F, Kim D, Packer L

Procyanidins extracted from pine bark protect α-tocopherol in ECV 304 endothelial cells challenged by activated RAW 264.7 macrophages: role of nitric oxide peroxynitrite.

FEBS Lett 431: 315-318, 1998

 

Pycnogenol® produces an anti-oedema effect in two different models. Topical application of Pycnogenol® gel protects the skin against UV radiation.

Blazso G, Gabor M, Rohdewald P

Anti-inflammatory activities of procyanidin containing extracts from Pinus pinaster Ait. after oral and cutaneous application.

Pharmazie 52: 380-382, 1997

 

Pycnogenol® increases pathologically low capillary wall resistance. Pycnogenol® is shown to be the most potent among other bioflavonoids tested. Pycnogenol® provides strength to capillary walls and makes them less permeable and thus contributes to anti-oedema, anti-inflammatory effects.

Gabor M, Engi E, Sonkodi S

Die Kapillarwandresistenz und ihre Beeinflussung durch wasserlösliche Flavonderivate bei spontan hypertonischen Ratten.

Phlebologie 22: 178-182, 1993

 

Pycnogenol® dose-dependently protects the skin from ultraviolet-radiation-induced oxidative stress injury (lipid peroxidation and cytotoxicity).

Guochang Z

Ultraviolet radiation-induced oxidative stress in cultured human skin fibroblasts and antioxidant protection.

Bio Res Rep Univ Jyväskylä 33: 1-86, 1993

Review: Pycnogenol® improves women’s health in a non-hormonal way.

Rohdewald PJ

Pycnogenol®, a Plant Extract for Women’s Health.

Int J Women’s Health Care (IJWHC) 2(1): 1-5, 2017

 

CLINICAL STUDY: Further to alleviating menopausal symptoms, Pycnogenol® significantly improves blood sugar and -lipids, and supports healthy blood pressure, CRP- and homocysteine values.

Luzzi R, Belcaro G, Hosoi M, Feragalli B, Cornelli U, Dugall M, Ledda A

Normalization of cardiovascular risk factors in peri-menopausal women with Pycnogenol®.

Minerva Ginecol 69: 29-34, 2017

 

A review on the efficacy of Pycnogenol® to alleviate climacteric symptoms by improving endothelial function and antioxidative status.

Rohdewald P

Relief from Menopausal Symptoms by Non-hormonal Treatment with Pycnogenol® (French Maritime Pine Bark Extract). 

J Genit Syst & Disor 5: 4, 2016

 

Pycnogenol® inhibits bone demineralisation in preclinical menopause research.

Huang G, Wu J, Wang S, Wei Y, Chen F, Chen J, Shi J, Xia J

Pycnogenol® treatment inhibits bone mineral density loss and trabecular deterioration in ovariectomized rats. 

Int J Clin Exp Med 8(79): 10893-10901, 2015

 

CLINICAL STUDY: In combination with low-dose oral contraceptives Pycnogenol® effectively decreases pain and number of bleeding days.

Maia H, Haddad C, Casoy J

The effect of Pycnogenol® on patients with dysmenorrhea using low-dose oral contraceptives.

Int J Women’s Health 6: 1019-1022, 2014

 

CLINICAL STUDY: The use of Pycnogenol® improves signs and symptoms of postpartum varicose veins and venous function. Veins regain shape faster.

Belcaro G, Dugall M, Luzzi R, Ippolito E, Cesarone MR

Postpartum Varicose Veins: Supplementation with Pycnogenol® or Elastic Compression - A 12-Month Follow-Up. 

Int J Angiol DOI 10.1055/s-0033-1363784, 2014

 

CLINICAL STUDY: The oral administration of Pycnogenol® combined with daily sunscreen application should be added as an adjuvant to other treatments of melasma.

Campos V

Oral administration of Pycnogenol® associated with sunscreen improve clinical symtpoms of melasma.

J Am Acad Dermatol AB19 (P8471), 2014

 

CLINICAL STUDY: The combination of oral contraceptives with Pycnogenol® shows a positive synergetic effect on the eutopic endometrium of endometriosis patients.

Maia H, Haddad C, Pinheiro N, Casoy J

The Effect of Oral Contraceptives Combined With Pycnogenol (Pinus Pinaster) On Aromatase and VEGF Expression in the Eutopic Endometrium of Endometriosis Patients.

Gynecol Obstet 4:2, 2014

 

CLINICAL STUDY: In the months after pregnancy, Pycnogenol® appears to positively affect hemorrhoid signs and symptoms.

Belcaro G, Gizzi G, Pellegrini M, Dugall M, Luzzi R, Corsi M, Ippolito E, Ricci A, Cesarone MR, Ledda A, Bottari A, Errichi BM Pycnogenol® in postpartum symptomatic hemorrhoids.

Minerva Ginecologica 66(1): 77-84, 2014

 

CLINICAL STUDY: Pycnogenol® taken with oral contraceptives alleviates endometriosis related pain.

Maia H, Haddad C, Casoy J

Combining oral contraceptives with a natural nuclear factor-kappa B inhibitor for the treatment of endometriosis-related pain.

Int J Womens Health 6: 35-39, 2014

 

CLINICAL STUDY: Pycnogenol® significantly improved peri-menopausal symptoms at relatively low daily dosage of 60 mg and was demonstrated to not interfere with sexual hormone levels.

Kohama T, Negami M

Effect of low-dose French maritime pine bark extract on climacteric syndrome in 170 perimenopausal women.

J Reprod Med 58(1-2): 39-46, 2013

 

CLINICAL STUDY: Pycnogenol® significantly contributes to reduce signs and symptoms related to the menopausal transition period.

Errichi S, Bottari A, Belcaro G, Cesarone MR, Hosoi M, Cornelli U, Dugall M, Ledda A, Feragalli B Supplementation with Pycnogenol® improves signs and symptoms of menopausal transition.

Panminerva Med 53: 65-70, 2011

 

CLINICAL STUDY: Pycnogenol® significantly lowers menstrual pain and the quantity of required analgesic medication in a multi-center study with four hospitals in Japan.

Suzuki N, Uebaba K, Kohama T, Moniwa N, Kanayama N, Koike K

French Maritime Pine Bark Extract Significantly Lowers the Requirement for Analgesic Medication in Dysmenorrhea. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

J Reprod Med 53: 338-346, 2008

 

CLINICAL STUDY: Pycnogenol® reduces pain from endometriosis, shows less side effects than hormonal treatment and enabled some women to conceive.

Kohama T, Herai K, Inoue M

Effect of French Martime Pine Bark Extract on endometriosis as compared with Leuprorelin acetate.

J Reprod Med 52: 703-708, 2007

 

CLINICAL STUDY: Pycnogenol® improves a broad range of climacteric symptoms in a study with 200 menopausal women.

Yang H-M, Liao M-F, Zhu SY, Liao M-N, Rohdewald P

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial on the effect of Pycnogenol® on the climacteric syndrome in peri- menopausal women.

Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 86: 978-985, 2007

 

CLINICAL STUDY: Pycnogenol® reduces low-back pain in late period of pregnancy.

Kohama T, Inoue M

Pycnogenol® Alleviates Pain Associated with Pregnancy. 

Phytother Res 20: 232-234, 2006

 

CLINICAL STUDY: Pycnogenol® produces analgesic effect in gynaecological disorders such as endometriosis and dysmenorrhea. It reduces menstrual cramps, abdominal pain and tenderness.

Kohama T, Suzuki N, Ohno S, Inoue M

Analgesic efficacy of French maritime pine bark extract in dysmenorrhea. An open clinical trial.

J Reprod Med 49: 828-832, 2004

 

CLINICAL STUDY: Pycnogenol® helps in gynaecological disorders such as endometriosis and dysmenorrhea. It reduces menstrual cramps, abdominal pain and tenderness.

Kohama T, Suzuki N

The treatment of gynaecological disorders with Pycnogenol®.

Eur Bull Drug Res 7: 30-32, 1999

In preclinical research Pycnogenol® is suggested to preserve synaptic function subsequent to controlled cortical impact.

Norris CM, Sompol P, Roberts KN, Ansari M, Scheff SW

Pycnogenol® protects CA3-CA1 synaptic function in a rat model of traumatic brain injury.

Experimental Neurology 276: 5-12, 2016

 

CLINICAL STUDY: Pycnogenol® reduces oxidative stress and improves physical performance in athletes.

Vinciguerra G, Belcaro G, Bonanni E, Cesarone MR, Ledda A, Hosoi M, Dugall M, Cacchio M, Cornelli U

Evaluation of the effects of supplementation with Pycnogenol® on fitness in normal subjects with the Army Physical Fitness Test and in performances of athletes in the 100-minute triathlon.

J sports Med Phys Fitness 53(6): 644-654, 2013

 

CLINICAL STUDY: Pycnogenol® consumption increases vasodilatation by 42% in young healthy men, which warrants sufficient blood and oxygen supply to performing muscle.

Nishioka K, Hidaka T, Nakamura S, Umemura T, Jitsuiki D, Soga J, Goto C, Chayama K, Yoshizumi M, Higashi Y

Pycnogenol®, French Maritime Pine Bark Extract, augments endothelium-dependent vasodilation in humans.

Hypertens Res 30: 775-780, 2007

 

CLINICAL STUDY: Pycnogenol® reduces muscular pain and cramps in athletes and in patients with vascular problems or poor blood circulation of the legs.

Vinciguerra G, Belcaro G, Cesarone MR, Rohdewald P, Stuard S, Ricci A, Di Renzo A, Hosoi M, Dugall M, Ledda A, Cacchio M, Acerbi G, Fano F

Cramps and muscular pain: prevention with Pycnogenol® in normal subjects, venous patients, athletes, claudicants and in diabetic microangiopathy.

Angiology 57: 331-339, 2006

 

CLINICAL STUDY: Pycnogenol® increases exercise endurance in recreational athletes by 21% on a treadmill.

Pavlovic P

Improved endurance by use of antioxidants.

Eur Bull Drug Res 7: 26-29, 1999

CLINICAL STUDY: Due to Pycnogenol®’s effect on oxidative stress levels, a large number of positive effects in subjects with initial cognitive impairment could be shown.

Hosoi M, Belcaro G, Saggino A, Luzzi R, Dugall M, Feragalli B

Pycnogenol® supplementation in minimal cognitive dysfunction.

J Neurosurg Sci 62(3): 279-284, 2018

 

Review: Pycnogenol® is considered to have therapeutic benefits in ADHD, as it increased antioxidant levels, reduced oxidative damage and improved neurochemical status.

Verlaeat AAJ, Maasakkers CM, Hermans N, Savelkoul HFJ

Rationale for Dietary Antioxidant Treatment of ADHD.

Nutrients 10, 405; doi: 10.3390/nu10040405, 2018

 

CLINICAL STUDY: Pycnogenol® supplementation for 12 months improves cognition and quenches oxidative stress in normal subjects aged 55 to 70 years.

Belcaro G, Dugall M, Ippolito E, Hu S, Saggino A, Feragalli B

The COFU3 Study: Improvement in cognitive function, attention, mental performance with Pycnogenol® in healthy subjects (55-70) with high oxidative stress.

J Neurosurg Sci 59: 437-446, 2015

 

In preclinical research Pycnogenol® is suggested to preserve synaptic function subsequent to controlled cortical impact.

Norris CM, Sompol P, Roberts KN, Ansari M, Scheff SW

Pycnogenol protects CA3-CA1 synaptic function in a rat model of traumatic brain injury.

Experimental Neurology 276: 5-12, 2016

 

Pycnogenol® counteracts inflammatory situations of brain microglia cells in pre-clinical study.

Fan B, Dun S-H, Gu J-Q, Guo Y, Ikuyama S

Pycnogenol attenuates the release of proinflammatory cytokines and expression of perilipin 2 in lipopolysaccharides- stimulated microglia in part via inhibition of NF-κB and AP-1 activation.

PLOS ONE 10(9): e0137837.doi:10.1371/journal, 2015

 

Pycnogenol® research with double-blind, placebo-controlled protocol.

Stough C, Pase MP

Improving cognition in the elderly with nutritional supplements. Current Directions in Psychological Science 24: 177-183, 2015

 

Pycnogenol® supplementation for 12 weeks appears to improve cognitive function and oxidative stress in healthy professionals.

Belcaro G, Luzzi R, Dugall M, Ipppolito E, Saggino A

Pycnogenol® improves cognitive function, attention, mental performance and specific professional skills in healthy professionals aged 35-55.

J Neurosurg Sci 58: 239-248, 2014

 

CLINICAL STUDY: Pycnogenol® significantly improves memory, cognition, attention and mood in healthy students.

Luzzi R, Belcaro G, Zulli C, Cesarone MR, Cornelli U, Dugall M, Hosoi M, Feragalli B

Pycnogenol® supplementation improves cognitive function, attention and mental performance in students. 

Panminerva Med 53: 75-82, 2011

 

CLINICAL STUDY: Pycnogenol® significantly improves memory in 101 senior citizens with memory deficits and saves their poly-unsaturated fatty acids, such as from neuronal membranes, from oxidative destruction.

Ryan J, Croft K, Wesnes K, Stough C

An examination of the effects of the antioxidant Pycnogenol® on cognitive performance, serum lipid profile, endocrinological and oxidative stress biomarkers in an elderly population.

J Psychopharmacol 22: 553-562, 2008

 

CLINICAL STUDY: Pycnogenol® lowers stress-hormones in children with ADHD.

Dvorakova M, Jezova D, Blazicek P, Trebaticka J, Skodacek I, Suba J, Waczulikova I, Rohdewald P, Durackova Z Urinary catecholamines in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): modulation by a polyphenolic extract from pine bark (Pycnogenol®).

Nutr Neurosci 10: 151-157, 2007

 

CLINICAL STUDY: Pycnogenol® improves antioxidant status in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

Dvorakova M, Sivonova M, Trebaticka J, Skodacek I, Waczulikova I, Muchova J, Durackova Z

Research Article: The effect of polyphenolic extract from pine bark, Pycnogenol®, on the level of glutathione in children suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Redox Rep 11: 163-172, 2006

 

CLINICAL STUDY: Pycnogenol® protects DNA against oxidation in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

Chovanova Z, Muchova J, Sivonova M, Dvorakova M, Zitnanova I, Waczulikova I, Trebaticka J, Skodacek I, Durackova Z Effect of polyphenolic extract, Pycnogenol®, on the level of 8-oxoguanine in children suffering from attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder.

Free Radic Res 40: 1003-1010, 2006

 

CLINICAL STUDY: Pycnogenol® relieves hyperactivity and improves attention in children with ADHD in a double-blind placebo controlled study.

Trebaticka J, Kopasova S, Hradecna Z, Cinovsky K, Skodacek I, Suba J, Muchova J, Zitnanova I, Waczulikova I, Rohdewald P, Durackova Z

Treatment of ADHD with French maritime pine bark extract, Pycnogenol®. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 15: 329-335, 2006

 

Neuronal apoptosis (early cell death) is induced by the amyloid-β-peptide in the brain of Alzheimer patients. In vitro experiments demonstrated an inhibition of cell death of neurons by Pycnogenol®.

Peng QL, Buz’Zard AR, Lau BHS

Pycnogenol® protects neurones from amyloid β peptide-induced apoptosis.

Brain Res Mol Brain Res 104: 55-65, 2002

 

Pycnogenol® produces significant reduction in vascular damage caused by β-amyloid protein. β-amyloidosis is one of the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This explains the role of Pycnogenol® in reducing the risk of AD.

Liu F, Lau BHS, Peng Q, Shah V

Pycnogenol® protects vascular endothelial cells from β-amyloid-induced injury. Biol Pharm Bull 23: 735-737, 2000

 

Pycnogenol® improves learning impairment and loss of memory, common symptoms of the ageing process.

Liu F, Zhang Y, Lau BHS

Pycnogenol® improves learning impairment and memory deficit in senescence-accelerated mice. 

J Anti Aging Med 2: 349-355, 1999

 

Pycnogenol® is recommended for treatment of Attention Deficit Disorder.

Hanley JL

Attention Deficit Disorder.

Impact Communications Inc., Green Bay, WI, USA, 17-19, 1999

 

CLINICAL STUDY: Positive experience with Pycnogenol® in treating ADHD is mentioned in this letter to the Editor.

Heimann SW

Pycnogenol® for ADHD?

J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 38: 357-358, 1999

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